Monday, January 28, 2008



Today, most schools and higher educational institutions have computers in the classroom for teacher and students. In education, teachers, students, researchers and school administrators benefits from the usage of ICT.

1. Teachers use computers to research for teaching materials, participate in online forums and online conferences as well as to aid their teaching.

2. Students use the computers as a reference tool. They use computers to browse the Internet to look for information.

3. School administrators use computers for administrative purposes to make sure that the entire operation runs smoothly.


The computer is the nerve centre of the banking system around the world. It functions to control the entire banking system that also includes 'Electronic Banking Services'. Electronic banking provides 24 hour services. The services include :

Automated Teller Machine (ATM)

Cheque Deposit

Electronic Fund Tranfer

Direct Deposit

Pay by phone system

Personal computer banking/ internet banking

In the banking sector, customers, businessman and bank administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.

1. Customers can make any transactions at the 24 hour service centres or via online.These services allow them to do transaction at anytime they want.

2. Businessmen can save their time by using the online services offered by banks. They can access company accounts for loan applications, business transactions and update on their cash flow at any time.

3. Bank administrators can oversee the entire banking activities such as reconciliations, inter-branch transactions (IBT), telegraphic

transfer and others by referring to the banking system.


Computers are used to facilitate production planning and control systems, to support chain management and to help in product design in the industrial sector In the industrial sector ,workers, researchers and administrator benefits from the usage of ICT.

1. Workers use machines that are connected to computers to operate. In some productions, robots are used to take over jobs that are dangerous to the workers.

2. Researchers use computers to analyze and collect research data for future reference.

3. Administrators use computers to oversee the entire operations in the plant or factory to detect specific errors or defects that occurred in the process.


E-commerce helps in boosting the economy. It makes buying and selling activities easier, more efficient and faster. For this application, computers, Internet and shared software are needed.

In the e-commerce sector ,customers r, suppliers and employees benefits from the usage of ICT.

1. Customers use computers to be connected online with suppliers to purchase products. This method can save time and cost as they do not have to go to any outlets.

2. Suppliers use computers to keep track of their transactions. All products are bar coded and can be read by the computer scanner to help in determining prices and managing inventory.

4. Employees use computers and telephones to communicate with their customers for any enquiries. The system helps employees to get the latest updates on inventory to be informed to the customers.


  1. Architectute
  2. Arts
  3. Career
  4. Healthcare
  5. Home



In the early years, before the computer was invented, there are several inventions of counting machines.


The first generation of computer were huge, slow, expensive and often unreliable. In 1946, two Americans, Presper Eckert and Willian Mauchly build the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). It use vacuum tube instead of mechanical switches of the MARK 1. In 1951, Eckert and Mauchly build the UNIVAC, which could calculate at the rate of 10,000 addition per seconds.

VACUUM TUBE - The vacuum tube was an extremely important step of the advancement of computers.In a computer, a vacuum tube which is an electronic tube about the size of light bulbs, was used as the internal computer components. Thousands of them were used.

PUNCHED CARD - Punched card was used to store data.

MAGNETIC TAPE - Magnetic tape was introduced in 1957. It was a faster and a more compact method of storing data. Using magnetic tape became more reliable and cost-effective.


the vacuum tubes generated a great deal of heat causing many problems in temperature regulation and climate control

the tubes also burnt out frequently

people operating the computer did not know that the problem was in the programming machine

the second generation computer scientists invented something new due to lots of problem created by vacuum tubes


The famous computer scientists during the second generation era were:
1. John Bardeen
Walter Houser
Willian Shockley

The creation of transistor spark the production of a wave of second generation computer. Transistor was small devices use to transfer electronic signals across a resister. Transistors had many advantages compared to other hardware technology.
transistors were smaller than vacuum tubes
they needed no warm up time
consumed less energy
generated much less heat
faster and more reliable


In the third generation era, the IBM 370 series were introduced in 1964. It came in several models and sizes. It was used for business and scientific programs. Other computer models introduced were CDC 7600 and B2500.

The development of integrated circuit (IC), signal the beginning of the third generation computers. Silicone chips were manufactured in 1961 at the Silicone Valley. Then came the integrated circuit technology, which had reduced the size and cost of computers.

It is a complete electronic circuit on a small chip of silicone. Which is also known as semi conductor. Other than that, the Magnetic Core Memory was replaced by a device called the microchip. Also the first 256 bit RAM was introduced and it was the basis for development of 1K bit RAM.

A new concept in this generation was that of a family of computer which allowed computer to be upgraded and expanded as necessary.

Silicone chips were reliable, compact and cheaper.

Sold hardware and software separately which created the software industry.

customer service industry flourished (reservation and credit checks)


It took only 55 years for the 4 generations to evolve. The growth of the computer industry developed technologies of computer inventions. There are many types of computer models such as:

Apple Macintosh




In 1971 Intel created the first microprocessor. In 1976, Steve Jobs built the first Apple computer. Then, in 1981, IBM introduced its first personal computer.

During the fourth generation, hardware technology such as silicone chips, microprocessor and storage devices were invented. A microprocessor is a specialized chip which is developed for computer memory and logic.

The microprocessor is a large-scale integrated circuit which contained thousands of transistors. The transistors on this one chip are capable of performing all of the functions of a computer's central processing unit.


Computers became 100 times smaller than ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) the first computer

Gain in speed, reliability and storage capacity

Personal and software industry boomed


The fifth generation computers are technologically advance and are still being development to become more efficient.

The inventions of new hardware technology in the fifth generation have grown rapidly including many other modern computer devices such as :

silicone chips



virtual reality

intelligent systems

programs which translate languages


After the fifth generation computer, the technology of computer has become more advanced, modern and sophisticated. The latest invention in the era of computers are :

Super Computers

Mainframe Computers

Mini Computers

Personal Computers

Mobile Computers

In the new era of computers, expert system such as teleconferencing and speech-recognition system have been invented as part of modern world communication tools.



Communication has improved and evolved to facilitate our daily activities. In the 21st century, everything related to communication utilizes technology to ‘send out’ or disseminate information to a wider audience. Information can be ‘sent out’ in many ways. The inventions of cellular phones, television and other electronic devices are important in enhancing communication.


ICT is the technology required for information processing, in particular, the use of electronic computers, communication devices and software applications to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and retrieve information from anywhere, anytime.


Information refers to the knowledge obtained from reading, investigation, study or research. The tools to transmit information are the telephone, television and radio. We need information to make decisions and to predict the future. For example, scientists can detect the formation of a tsunami using the latest technology and warn the public to avoid disasters in the affected areas. Information is knowledge and helps us to fulfill our daily tasks. For example, forecasting the stock exchange market.


Communication is an act of transmitting messages. It is a process whereby information is exchanged between individuals using symbols, signs or verbal interactions. Previously, people communicated through sign or symbols, performing drama and poetry. With the advent of technology, these ‘older’ forms of communication are less utilised as compared to the use of the Internet, e-mail or video conferencing. Communication is important in order to gain knowledge. With knowledge, we are more confident in expressing our thoughts and ideas.


Technology is the use of scientific knowledge, experience and resources to create processes and products that fulfill human needs. Technology is vital in communication.

Aiding Communication

Telephone and fax machines are the devices used in extending communication.

Spreading Information

To broadcast information such as news or weather reports effectively. Radio, television, satellites and the World Wide Web (www) are powerful tools that can be used.